A timeline of all the articles that deal with history, sorted chronologically. Gaps will be updated with new articles.
40000 – 28000 BC
Neandertals were a species or subspecies of archaic human that became extinct some 40,000 years ago. Could some memory of our distant cousins still be preserved in the ancient mythology?
These ancient myths label beings similar to Neanderthals as the first megalith builders who passed their knowledge to humans. Can it be true?
Vinca culture, also known as the “Old Europe” and “Danube valley civilization” was a highly advanced Neolithic society of South-Eastern Europe with the first evidence of farming, metallurgy, trade and urban settlements on European soil. Opinions are still divided when it comes to the evidence of the first writing, which if proven true, would predate the Sumerian for several millennia.
Archaeological and genetic evidence proved that this was a year of demise of the Vinca civilization, a year when it was conquered by the nomadic horsemen that arrived from the steppes. The first contact was probably established by the means of trade in the Cucuteni-Trypillian culture (4800-3000BC) – a mixture of Vinca culture and the cultures of the steppes. Interestingly, Balkan nations are still predominantly a genetic mixture of these two cultures.
Opinions are still divided weather the Aryans of Indus Valley civilization (3300-1600 BC) were “fair skinned” or not, but even the current situation in India provides enough evidence that there was a significant genetic mixture with the people of the fair skin in the north. “Aryan” was a wide term, used from India to Iran, and perhaps even in ancient Europe, translated as Albanian in Latin, Wend in Germanic and perhaps Gaul in Greek – and it simply meant “white”, therefore making it impossible to differentiate between Slavic, Germanic, Iranic, Turkic and Mongoloic tribes, which are all genetically close. (haplogroups R1a and R1b).
It is a telltale sign that most of the migrations described above happen after the demise of the Indus Valley civilization in 1600 BC, a demise that was probably caused by the severe climatic changes and disappearance of the Sarasvati river. The hords of nomads are reaching Mediterranean, arriving from the both sides of the Black sea. In the Balkans, a cultures of Illyrians and Thracians are formed as a result of the mixture with the native culture. From 1210 BC sea peoples are raiding the Mediterranean region. Troy falls in 1184 BC. Phrygians are pushed from Balkans to Turkey.
Beginning of the first developed civilization of Mesoamerica – the Olmecs. Their culture, as well as the cultures who will succeed it, share many similarities with the rest of the cultures of the old world – a fact that did not go unnoticed by the scholars. However, the most daring assumptions relate this influence to Phoenicians, but in my opinion it can be pushed even further back in time – to sea peoples.
600BC – 500 AD
Some thoughts on the more recent migrations.